Oral presentations (given either individually or in groups) are a common form of assessment at British universities. If you're not used to them (and even if you are!), they can be a nerve-wracking experience. Here is some simple yet effective advice to guide you through the process. Remember - the more you do the easier they become, so practise and repeat!
- Plan the content of your talk carefully keeping in mind your audience (e.g. if your audience is not familiar with key/technical vocabulary you will need to explain it).
- Think about the structure of your talk. Make sure it has a clear introduction, a main body and a conclusion. Try to think of a way to grab the audience’s attention when you start and a way to keep them thinking about your content after you’ve finished (e.g. a rhetorical question or image to start and maybe a different question or piece of advice or warning to end).
- Make your talk easy to understand and use visual aids effectively (i.e. use bullet points of main ideas only, or use simple diagrams, graphs, pictures to illustrate key points).
- Make your talk interesting, e.g. use humour, anecdotes, metaphors, repetition, tripling, etc., as appropriate.
- Don’t write down your talk word for word. Use small cards with key words and phrases to help you remember. Number the cards so that if you drop them you don’t ruin your talk.
- Practise giving your talk in advance. Stand in front of a mirror or video record yourself. Notice your posture, facial expressions, gestures, pace, pausing, intonation etc.
- Time your talk.
- Don’t panic! If you’ve done your preparation well, you will know more about the topic than anyone else in the room. This should give you confidence.
- Stand tall, feet about shoulder width apart (or less), and where you can be seen by everyone. Try not to fidget. Check you’re not blocking your visual aids.
- Your talk should be SAID not READ. Talk around the bullet points on your visual aids, giving more details, examples and explanation.
- Maintain eye contact with your audience. Naturally shift your gaze from one person to another around the room.
- Try to avoid fillers (e.g. umm, ahhh, like, etc.) and overly long pauses (unless used purposely for dramatic effect).
- Pitch your voice to the people at the back of the room and don’t talk too quickly. If you hear yourself speeding up, make a conscious effort to slow down.
- Look as though you are enjoying what you’re doing. Enjoyment is like measles; it’s infectious!
- If you get nervous, a couple of deep breaths and a smile will help. If you’ve brought a bottle of water, take a sip.
- At the end of your presentation, ask if anyone has any questions. Allow the audience a couple of minutes to think of some.
- When answering questions, look at the questioner as s/he speaks, but address your response to the whole room. Look at the questioner roughly 25% of the time; the other 75% look at the other audience members.
- Don’t engage in a battle. If one person tries to monopolise the questioning, give your view briefly, then thank the person and say: ‘That’s an interesting point. I wonder if anyone else would like to comment?’
- If you’re not sure how to answer or if you’re running out of time, you can say, ‘I haven’t considered that fully. Maybe we can talk about that later, one-to-one.’