References

A comprehensive editing checklist

For those of you currently working on dissertations or theses, here's an editing checklist that you can use to in your final stages, before you send off your work to be proofread or printed.

Although it's comprehensive in nature, it's not tailor-made for you. In other words, you need to be self-aware and read your own work for the types of errors you tend to make.  

Remember also that if you're going to employ a proofreader, you need to do this in plenty of time, working back from the submission deadline and leaving enough time for the proofreader to read and for you to make the necessary changes.

Make sure you vet the proofreader properly, ideally getting a recommendation from your Department. A reputable proofreader will NOT rewrite your work for you; instead, they may do any or all of the following: ask you to clarify parts they don't understand; draw your attention to any redundancy, repetition and wordiness; suggest alternative methods of organisation or alternative vocabulary to improve structure and coherence; point out errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, academic style or in use of academic conventions; and offer partial reformulations to improve sentence structure and coherence.  

Good proofreaders will use software like Track Changes in Word so that you can see clearly your original piece of work and the suggested changes.  When your work is returned to you, there will be a considerable amount of your own rewriting that you will have to do, so, again, make sure you plan for this and build it in to your own dissertation/thesis timeline.

With all that in mind, we hope you find the editing checklist below useful to you. Remember, if you need any help with your work, do get in touch. If you are a postgraduate student, we offer a principled proofreading service, designed to support you in developing your academic writing skills.  If you are an academic, aiming to publish a journal article, we are experienced article writers ourselves and can offer editing, proofreading and advice on approaching/responding to peer review comments. 

The Editing Checklist

Content

  • Is all information relevant to the essay title/question?
  • Has sufficient space (or words) been given to the most important points?
  • Is the main line of argument clear throughout the entire essay?

 

Structure and Organization

Overall Structure:

  • Is the structure of the essay appropriate for the title/question?
  • Does the essay address all parts of the title/question?

Introduction:

  • Does the introduction set the context and provide enough background information for the reader?
  • Does the introduction include a thesis statement (i.e. a statement that tells the reader the purpose of the essay and possibly your position)?
  • Does the introduction include a map of the paper (i.e. does it tell the reader what to expect in the rest of the paper, usually using language like: In this essay I will firstly/first of all describe/define/discuss/examine/analyse… and then …’ or ‘This essay will first of all… and then…)

Main Body:

  • Does each paragraph begin with a clear topic sentence, indicating the (one) main idea of the paragraph?
  • Are paragraphs well developed with enough support/evidence for the main idea? (note: paragraphs that are only 2 to 3 sentences in length are usually under-developed)
  • Are connections between ideas within the paragraph made explicit to the reader (i.e. are there cohesive devices like ‘also’, ‘for example’, ‘furthermore’, ‘whereas’, ‘first’, ‘finally’, etc?)

 

If support in the form of paraphrases and quotations is used:

  • Have they been chosen carefully and do they indeed support/illustrate the point you want to make?
  • Has the significance/implication of the paraphrase/quote to the main argument/thesis/topic been made explicit (usually using language like: ‘Thus it can be seen that…’ / ‘It is clear, therefore, that …’ )
  • Is it clear how each paragraph links to the one before and to the one that comes after and to the essay title/question?

 

Conclusion:

  • Does the conclusion summarise the key points made in the paper?
  • Does it leave the reader with some food for thought (e.g. a warning, a recommendation, an indication that further research/investigation needs to be done, etc.)?

 

Quotations, Paraphrases and References

Direct quotations:

  • Are they referenced accurately (with author’s last name, year of publication and page number for the Harvard Referencing system e.g. (Jones, 2010, p. 33))?  For other referencing systems, please check your Departmental handbook.
  • Are quotation marks used (‘….’)?
  • Are they introduced appropriately (e.g. As Jones (2010, p. 33) states/writes/observes/claims/points out, … or According to Jones (2010, p. 33), …)
  • Are they used sparingly (ie. only when the point being made is done so brilliantly or poignantly by the original author and only when you couldn’t have said it better yourself)?

Paraphrases:

  • Are they referenced accurately (with the author’s last name + year of publication)?
  • Are they appropriate (i.e. not too close to the original but still capture the meaning of the original)?
  • Are they introduced appropriately (e.g. In Jones’s (2010) opinion, … / Jones (2010) reports that … / As Jones (2010) points out… )?

End-of-text References:

  • Are all sources cited in the body of the text listed here in alphabetical order?
  • Are they accurate (according to your Department’s guidelines)?

 

Style, Clarity, Grammar and Punctuation

Style and clarity:

  • Is the essay appropriately academic in terms of style (i.e. no informal language, slang, colloquialisms or contracted forms (e.g. don’t/isn’t)?
  • Are statements tentative rather than dogmatic (e.g. It would seem that …/ It may/could be that…/perhaps/possibly…/One possibility might be … etc)?
  • Are the words used your own (apart from quotations) and are your own ideas/opinions made clear to the reader?  In other words, does your own voice come through?
  • Are sentences of reasonable length (not too long; not too short) and not overly complicated?
  • Is the text repetitive? (it shouldn’t be!)
  • Can the essay be read aloud easily? (it should be!)

Grammar and punctuation:

Are the following accurate?:

  • Articles (e.g. the UK, the financial crisis)
  • Subject-verb agreement (e.g. The financial crisis has (not have wide-ranging repercussions.)
  • Verb forms (e.g. the government has been trying to … (not the government has been try to …); This could damage … (not this could to damage …)
  • Verb tense (e.g. In 2010, the government announced new measures…(not In 2010, the government have announced…)
  • Prepositions (e.g. Big banks were interested in … (not: big banks were interested at …)
  • Parts of speech (e.g. This was a destructive measure (not: this was a destruction measure)
  • Sentence connectors (e.g. The big banks acted irresponsibly. However, it was the average family that suffered. (not: The big banks acted irresponsibly, however, it was the average family that suffered.)
  • Full stops separating sentences = a subject + main verb (e.g. The full impact of the crisis has yet to be determined. We will be feeling the effects for years to come. (not: The full impact of the crisis has yet to be determined, we will be feeling the effects for years to come.)

**Finally, check for spelling mistakes and typos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essay essentials: Part 2

In Part 2 of this 3-part blog, we’ll look at quotations, paraphrases and citations, references and conclusions. 

Again, this is a simple and fairly prescriptive overview, which we hope will help any student new to writing essays in English. We know that there is no magic formula for writing essays. But, we do believe that some elements are, to a certain extent, formulaic. In other words, if you follow the advice below, you shouldn’t be breaking any UK academic norms or conventions. Once you’ve written several essays and understand the ‘rules of the game’, so to speak, then by all means feel free to bend them and exercise to the full your academic literacies. 

1.  Quotations, paraphrases and citations

We said in our last post that every topic sentence (main idea) of every paragraph needs to be developed and supported fully within the paragraph.  The way we support our ideas is through use of explanation, examples, experience, facts/figures/statistics and reference to authority (i.e. reporting other people’s words, ideas and evidence).  Reference to authority can come in the form of direct quotations or paraphrases.

Direct quotations

These are the author’s exact words (unchanged by you).  Whenever you include a quotation you MUST use quotation marks (normally single in the UK, as per example below) and provide a citation. A citation is an acknowledgement of the origin of the quotation. In other words, you are telling your reader that you borrowed these words from someone else. Citations are done slightly differently according to different referencing systems (e.g. Harvard, APA, MLA) and you will need to check with your own Department which system they use and then follow their guidelines. Below is an example using the Harvard system.

Paraphrases

These involve rephrasing an extract from another author in your own words and are more common in academic writing than using direct quotations. Paraphrasing ideas in your own words shows your reader that you’ve read the information, processed it, and can reproduce it in a way that makes sense for you, i.e. your own words. Writing a paraphrase is challenging for L1 and L2 speakers alike.  So here are some tips:

  • Read, re-read and understand the original

  • Make brief notes using symbols, abbreviations etc.

  • Put the original (and your pen) to one side and try to express the meaning orally in your own words (even record yourself if you want)

  • Now write your paraphrase from memory or from the recording

  • Check against the original text. Make sure you’ve got the main idea but that you haven’t used too much of the original’s phrasing

  • Make sure you’ve acknowledged the source by including a citation

What you CAN change: vocabulary (e.g. use synonyms); sentence structure (e.g. change active voice to passive voice or vice versa); grammar (e.g. change verbs to nouns).

What you CAN’T change: the meaning!

Compare the original on the left with the paraphrase on the right and note down what was changed.  Also notice the citation. With the Harvard referencing system, you do not need to include a page number for paraphrases, just the author’s last name and year of publication.  Again, please check with your own Department and follow their guidelines. 

2.  References 

At the end of your essay list, in alphabetical order according to authors’ last names, all the sources you have referred to in your essay and provide full bibliographical details for each.

Note: a list of References is different from a Bibliography. The latter includes everything you’ve read and that which has informed your thinking for your essay.  Therefore, you may have more bibliography entries than sources cited in your essay.  A Reference List, however, has the exact same number of entries as the number of sources cited in your essay.

Make sure you consult your Department’s guidelines about whether to include a list of References or a Bibliography at the end of your essay and make sure you know and adhere strictly to the guidelines for the referencing system in use.

Here is a short example of a Reference List according to the Harvard Referencing System. Note: the first entry is a book; the second is a website; and the third is a journal article.

Example:

Allsop, J. (2002) Test Your Verbs.  Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.

British Council (2017) English for University Students. Available from: http://www.britishcouncil.org/english/academics [Accessed 23 May 2017].

Hu, X., Ackermann, H., Martin, J.A., Erb, M., Winkler, S. & Reiterer, S.M. (2013) ‘Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) learners: Behaviour predictors and neural substrates.’ Brain and Language, Vol. 127, pp. 366-376.

 

3.   Conclusions

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We hope this has helped you with your own writing. Our next post will cover academic language and style. If you have any questions about any of the information above or would like advice on your own essay, then please do get in touch.  We can help you gain confidence in your academic writing.